Evidence Based Medicine is Less than 50 years old: born in Hamilton Ontario from an American doctor who made Canada home.

If you should poll students and scholars of medical history about the most important developments of modern health care, you would find something called Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) will be very high up on the list. That is the delivery and choices of medical treatments based on sound evidence. Based on scientific evaluation. Based on firm unbiased evaluation such as in double-blind clinical trials and ones that include placebo groups. Now, this seems logical to any of the medical students, ophthalmology residents and retinal fellows I teach about genetics, molecular biology and research in 2019.  Yet physicians born in the early 1990s were often under the care of medical doctors whose choices of treatments were not necessarily sound options based on unbiased evaluation of the evidence. Yes, over 20 years after humans first walked on the Moon, medical schools and the bodies that license physicians were promoting practices that had often evolved on their own over decades with some backed up by scientific examination but many that were not. Fortunately for us now, an American doctor moved to Canada in the 1960s just as universal healthcare was started nationwide and he realized that was the climate to established principals now considered essential to the teaching and practice of medicine. Evidence-Based Medicine. Who was this American who made Canada his home?

Muller Report - Get your own PDF version here.

The Muller report. 

This is the redacted report, but if you want your own PDF file copy to read. Here it is. There are many other places to get it too but not all have a download. 

So click here to get a download from our share folder, click on this link:

Muller Report PDF file for downloading.

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Dr Mitton

Data Analysis Technical Special: Fixing Package Installation Problems for R and R-studio in OS-X.

What does this mean when I am trying to update R packages in R-Studio?

"xcrun: error: invalid active developer path (/Library/Developer/CommandLineTools), missing xcrun?
R-Studio is a popular workspace tool for getting started with R. I have been using R for some years to use the dose-response-curve (drc) package to fit our dose-response data. We study cells from human donor retinas, called endothelial cells. They form the inside of retinal blood vessels. Most new blindness in the United States each year is caused by diabetic retinopathy, which damages blood vessels. 

Wanting to update my own R-programming abilities and finding better ways to teach my own students and staff how to use R, I have been working through "Getting Started with R: An Introduction for Biologists" (2nd Edition, Beckerman, Childs, Petchey). The book makes the excellent point that the first problem in learning R for most students is getting stuck at how to get their data into R. It's not hard, but often the processes are explained poorly in many R-reference books. Unfortunately, while the authors have a good chapter on getting data into R, there is the reality that some of the functions and libraries needed to read in data from .cvs formatted files are in the R-package called readr. R-studio will ask you to let it install readr if it is missing in your library of packages and you can select YES, and Install, but sometimes the process fails. So as a new student of R, you get stuck at .... trying to get your data into R!! How do you fix this problem? Read on...

Run, Hide, Fight: is your Kid's University Campus Unprepared for a Campus Shooter?

Survey of Preparation for Active Shooter events at Universities and Colleges
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In early December 2018, there was strange confusion in social media, and in particular many conservative media outlets, about "hockey pucks" being given to students and faculty at a "Michigan" university to "throw at shooters". Descriptions suggested images of students and faculty roaming the hallways like Marines, to attack bad guys with hockey pucks. The shocking secret of the whole affair was the number printed on these pucks, which almost no Fox media outlet ever actually explained, even though some were using a picture of the special puck they found in one of my own twitter posts. Printed in bold large font, it says "#33395 AUFD". What does this educational tool refer too? 

Green-House Gas Effect and Global Warming 101

Welcome to a simple experiment in global warming. This experiment class will teach you about the way carbon dioxide causes the earth to get warmer and why the amount of extra carbon dioxide we Humans are making is tweeking that temperature to rise higher. It is not debatable, and as a matter of fact, it is as clear as the Sun, Earth and the Moon. If you believe these three heavenly bodies exist, then you have proof of global warming's link to greenhouse gasses. Why? Read on.... because today is MOONDAY!

Autism. What are the causes? The genetic realities we are learning about today.


For decades, many parents with autistic children have wanted to know why their child has autism and they wanted some thing to blame for the condition. This has lead to vaccines being blamed, which many studies have shown is not true, and even other drugs such as antibiotics.

I previously wrote a blog post on this topic, describing the some of the first new findings of genetic reasons, DNA changes, that impact genes encoding for proteins that are important to the normal function of neurons (neural cells) in our brains. This has come about largely because of our ability to now completely read the entire genomic DNA sequence of a patient. Children with autism, and also the genomic DNA sequences of their parents.